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Висячая церковь, Каир

Известная на арабском языке как al-Muallaqah («Приостановленная»), Висячая Церковь — самая известная коптская церковь в Каире. Церковь посвящена Деве Марии и таким образом также известна как Sitt Mariam или Церковь Пресвятой Девы Марии. Висячей церковь назвали из-за ее расположения — она находится над сторожкой крепостной стены древнеримских времен в Старом Каире. К церкви ведут 29 ступеней; ранние путешественники и паломники, прибывающие в Каир, называли эту церковь — «Церковь Лестницы».

История

Висячая Церковь была построена в 7-ом столетии, вероятно, на месте церкви 3-ьего или 4-ого столетия для солдат легиона. Она была реконструирована несколько раз с тех пор, включая главную реконструкцию при Патриархе Аврааме в 10-ом столетии. К 11-ому столетию Висячая Церковь стала официальной резиденцией коптского патриарха Александрии, и местом проведения нескольких коптских синодов. Главные детали интерьера церкви — это кафедра проповедника и экраны — датирующиеся 13-ом столетием.

Описание

Вход в Висячую церковь находится на улице Шар’а Мари Гиргис. Красивые железные ворота приводят в открытый внутренний двор, откуда по 29 ступеням можно подняться в саму церковь. На верхней площадке лестницы расположены три деревянных двери, украшенные геометрическими орнаментами и декоративными резными фигурками. Только одну часть церкви, расположенную направо от лестницы, выше южного оплота, считают самой древней и оригинальной. Висячая церковь остается одной из самых красивых и важных церквей в городе. Замечательная мраморная кафедра проповедника, инкрустированные экраны, иконы и фрески являются важными деталями интерьера церкви. Деревянная крыша нефа напоминает Ковчег Ноя. Мраморная кафедра проповедника 11-ого столетия расположена на 13 изящных столбах, которые представляют Иисуса и 12 его учеников. Из этих 13 столбов, как принято в коптских церквях, один является черного цвета, представляя Иуду, а другой — серый, представляя Фому Неверующего. Ступени кафедры  украшены изображениями крестов и раковин. Самая старая икона Висячей Церкви  датируется 8-ым столетием. Много других экспонатов из этой церкви в настоящее время выставлены в Коптском Музее, включая барельеф, на котором изображен вход Христа в Иерусалим, который датируется 5-ым или 6-ым столетием. В восточном конце церкви расположены три святилища с алтарями, посвященными Деве Марии (центр); Св. Георгию (слева) и Св. Иоанну Крестителю (справа). Центральный иконостас (экран святилища) датируется 12-ым или 13-ым столетием. Он сделан из черного дерева, инкрустированного слоновой костью, и украшен геометрическими орнаментами и крестами, и содержит семь больших икон. Икона в центре изображает возведенного на престол Христа; с правой стороны от него изображена Дева Мария, Архангел Гавриил и Святой Петр; с левой стороны  — Иоанн Креститель, Архангел Михаил и Святой Павел. Экран с левой стороны украшен квадратными орнаментами с крестами в дополнительными деталями из слоновой кости и черного дерева, и содержит 17 изображений, которые включают сцены из Мученичества Св. Георгия. С правой стороны экрана изображения датируются 13-ым столетием. На потолке есть семь маленьких икон, представляющих жизнь Святого Иоанна Крестителя. Все изображения на этих экранах принадлежат кисти армянского художника, Орхана Карабедиана, и датируются 1777 годом.

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