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Монастырь Святой Екатерины, Синай

Монастырь Святой Екатерины — православный монастырь на Синайском полуострове у подножья горы Синай в Египте. Один из самых старых христианских монастырей в мире; на территории монастыря Святой Екатерины находится неопалимая купина, которая была увидена Моисеем, а также в монастыре есть много ценных икон. Выше монастыря находится гора Синай, на которой Моисей получил Десять Заповедей от Бога. Поскольку Бог говорил с Моисеем в этом месте, то участок является священным для трех мировых религий: Христианства, Ислама и Иудаизма.

В Библии

Моисей пас стадо своего тестя Итро, мидиамского священника, и он привел стадо к дальней стороне пустыни к Хореб, горе Бога. Там Бог явился к нему в огне, прорывающемся изнутри кустарника. Моисей видел, что, хотя кустарник был в огне, он не сгорал… Когда Бог увидел, что пришел Моисей, он воззвал к нему изнутри кустарника, «Моисей! Моисей!», и Моисей сказал, «я здесь». «Не подходи ближе», сказал Бог, «сними свои сандалии, то место, где ты стоишь, святое». Затем он сказал, «я — Бог твоего отца, Бог Авраама, Бог Исаака и Бог Иакова». При этом Моисей закрыл свое лицо, потому что он боялся смотреть на Бога. Бог сказал, «я видел страдание своих людей в Египте… Так теперь, иди. Я посылаю тебя к Фараону, скажи ему, что мои люди — израильтяне, должны выйти из Египта». Моисей сказал Богу, «но поверят ли израильтяне, если я скажу им, что ‘Бог Ваших отцов послал меня к вам’, а они спросят меня, ‘Как его имя?’ Что я скажу им?», Бог сказал Моисею, «я — тот, кто я есть. Это — то, что ты должен сказать израильтянам: ‘он послал меня к вам» (Исход 3:1-14,).

На третий месяц после того, как израильтяне ушли из Египта — в тот самый день, когда они прибыли в пустыню Синай. Они расположились лагерем в пустыне перед горой. Затем Моисей подошел к горе, и Бог взывал к нему с горы и сказал: «это — то, что ты должен сказать дому Иакова, и что ты должен сказать людям Израиля: ‘сами вы видели то, что я сделал в Египте, и как я вынес вас на крыльях орлов. Теперь, если вы будете повиноваться мне полностью, и поддержите меня, то из всех народов вы будете избранными. Вы будете для меня народом священников и святым народом’. Это те слова, которые ты должен сказать народу Израиля».

И Бог произнес слова: «я — Бог ваш, который вывел Вас из Египта, из земли рабства. У Вас не должно быть никаких других богов, кроме меня…». (Исход 19; 20:1-17)

История

В начале 4-ого столетия, Святая Елена, мать Константина Великого, построила Часовню Неопалимой купины на месте, где Моисей, как предполагается, увидел чудо. Укрепленные стены были построены вокруг часовни Византийским императором и строителем Юстинианом (который также приказал построить Святую Софию в Константинополе), начиная с 527 года. Церковь Преобразования была закончена рабочими Юстиниана в 560-ых годах. Настоящее название монастыря — Монастырь Преобразования, но он широко известен и связан с именем Святой Екатерины Александрийской, мученицы 3-ьего столетия, голова и рука которой были доставлены в монастырь для безопасного хранения в 10-ом столетии. Монастырь Святой Екатерины стал важным центром паломничества в Византийскую эру, и он все еще остается таковым сегодня. Гора Синай также почитается мусульманами как Jebel Musa (Гора Моисея), место, где Бог дал свой Закон. В 623 году, документ, подписанный самим Пророком Мухаммедом, Actiname (Святое Завещание), освободил христианских монахов из монастыря Святой Екатерины от налогов и военной службы, и дал указание мусульманам предоставлять местному монашескому сообществу повсеместную помощь. В связи с таким добрым жестом, монахини монастыря Святой Екатерины разрешили преобразовать небольшую часовню крестоносцев в пределах монастыря в мечеть между 1101 и 1106 годами во время Халифата Фатимидов (909-1171 гг.). Мечеть была действующей до правления Мамелюков в конце 13-ого столетия, когда о ней забыли, и о ее восстановлении задумались только в начале 20-ого столетия. В настоящее время мечеть используется в особых случаях местными мусульманами. В 2002 году, область Монастыря Святой Екатерины, была объявлена Участком Всемирного Наследия ЮНЕСКО.

Описание

Монастырь Святой Екатерины включает православную церковь Горы Синай, возглавляемая архиепископом, который является также аббатом монастыря. Архиепископ традиционно посвящен православным Патриархом Иерусалима. Монастырь Святой Екатерины окружен на всех сторон массивной стеной 2.5 м. шириной и 11 м. высотой. Эта стена была построена по приказу Императора Юстиниана в 6-ом столетии. Она построена из огромных гранитных блоков за исключением верхних секций, которые были восстановлены по приказу Наполеона, когда использовались меньшие каменные блоки. Христианские символы, такие как кресты и монограммы, вырезаны на стене в различных местах. До 20-ого столетия в монастырь можно было зайти через высокую дверь во внешних стенах. Самая святая часть монастыря — большой куст, который, как считается, является прямым потомком той самой неопалимой купины, около которой Моисей получил Заповеди. Часовня неопалимой купины и ее алтарь были построены над корнями купины, и включает часовню 4-ого столетия, построенную Императрицей Еленой (Святой Еленой). Часовня посвящена Деве Марии. Сам кустарник был пересажен во время строительства алтаря и теперь растет на несколько метров дальше от часовни. Этот кустарник является редкой разновидностью розы под названием Rubus Sanctus. Кустарник является эндемиком для Синая, и эта разновидность чрезвычайно долговечна, что подтверждает теорию о существовании неопалимой купины.

Главная церковь монастыря — Базилика Преобразования (или Katholikon), была построена из гранита византийским архитектором Стефаносом в то же самое время, что и защитные стены. Церковная структура, крыша, и резанные кедровые двери — все оригинальны и датируются 527 годом нашей эры. Внутри, у базилики есть широкий главный неф, два прохода по сторонам от нефа, апсида и нартекс. Неф ограничен массивными гранитными колонами с капиталами, украшенными христианскими символами. У каждого прохода есть три часовни, и есть часовни с каждой стороны апсиды. Рядом с главным алтарем находится саркофаг с реликвиями Святой Екатерины (голова и рука). Потолок, мраморный пол и сложный иконостас базилики датируются 18-ым столетием. Иконы, мозаики и другие произведения религиозного искусства украшают пространство между опорами и были созданы в течение многих столетий. Двери нартекса были добавлены крестоносцами в 11-ом столетии.

Неоклассическая колокольня была построена в 1871 году одним из монахов, Григорием. В ней находятся девять колоколов, подаренных Царем России. Непрерывная поставка пресной воды в монастырь обеспечивается Источником Моисея, который является подземной рекой. Согласно традиции, источник расположен на том месте, где Моисей встретил свою будущую жену, Циппору, защитив ее и ее сестер от агрессивных местных пастухов (Исход 2:16-21). Кельи монахов построены вдоль внутренних защитных стен. У прямоугольной Старой Столовой (также известной как Церковь Крестоносцев) есть крыша в готическом стиле, через которую построены арки, украшенные оружием и другими символами рыцарей крестоносцев. Настенные фрески датируются периодом Крестоносцев и 16-ом столетием. Главная особенность столовой — длинный стол с резными фигурками, привезенными в монастырь из Корфу в 18-ом столетии.

Библиотека, сад и кладбище

Библиотека в монастыре Святой Екатерины является самой старой в христианском мире и содержит вторую по величине коллекцию ранних античных рукописей и свитков в мире (превзойденная по численности только Ватиканской Библиотекой). Ее коллекция включает больше чем 3000 рукописей и больше чем 5000 ранних религиозных книг. У библиотеки также есть бесценная коллекция больше чем 2000 изображений Христа, Марии и святых, выставленных в специальной галерее. Они представляют почти все школы византийской иконографии с 6-ого до 18-ого столетий. Мечеть Фатимидов, законченная в 1106 году на месте часовни Крестоносцев, расположена на юго-запад от базилики. Она имеет прямоугольный план (7 м. на 11 м.) и 7 м. в высоту, с невысоким минаретом в северном углу. Внутренняя часть мечети покрыта плоской деревянной крышей, имеет круглые арки и узкие высокие окна. Все окна были заложены кирпичом во время восстановления мечети в середине 20-ого столетия. За стенами расположен Сад Монастыря, созданный за многие годы монахами. Почва была принесена из различных мест, а также в саду были сделаны резервуары для накопления воды для садовой ирригации. В саду много плодовых деревьев, включая маслины, абрикосы и сливы, также монахи в саду выращивают большое разнообразие овощей. Рядом с садом находится кладбище и склеп. Когда монахи умирают, они сначала погребены на кладбище, после определенного периода, их кости эксгумируются и переносятся в Склеп (склеп расположен ниже часовни Св. Трифонио). Останки аббатов-архиепископов сохранены в специальных нишах. Склеп выполняет и практическую, и духовную функцию: он решает проблему ограниченного пространства монастыря и пустынности окружающей области, и напоминает монахам о неизбежности смерти. Посетители могут увидеть большую груду из тысяч черепов монахов. Многие посетители Монастыря Святой Екатерины также совершают экскурсию (или поездку на верблюдах) на вершину горы Синай (2285 м.), a.k.a. гора Моисея и Гора Хореб. Главный маршрут на вершину известен как Путь Моисея (арабский язык: Sikket Sayidna Musa), и содержит остатки различных ранних часовен.

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