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Московский Успенский собор

В XV-XVI веках московское правительство проводило прогрессивную политическую линию, так как основным процессом русской жизни того времени была централизация страны в условиях феодализма. Необходимо было окончательно преодолеть остатки феодальной раздробленности. Развитие денежного хозяйства и торговли и, с другой стороны, военные задачи, возникавшие в связи с обстановкой, создавшейся на восточных и на западных границах Московского государства, требовали сильной единой власти. Препятствием для дальнейшего развития страны была боярская оппозиция, жестоко сломленная Иваном Грозным в период опричнины.

Покровский собор является как бы связующим звеном между народом и царем. Московский Успенский собор, бывший до середины XVI века главным русским церковным зданием, объединял народ и бояр, народ и царя, включая их в себя, перед престолом божиим и перед алтарем божества, в котором священнодействовали служители церкви.

В этом «соборе» слышны отголоски представлений прошлого, когда церковь была началом, объединявшим Русь, и митрополит всея Руси был как бы предшественником общерусского царя. Возводя Покровский собор на Рву, Грозный создавал общенародный архитектурный центр, призванный организовать народ на Красной площади и связывающий его с Кремлем, превратившимся из укрепленной части столицы, из ее центра в резиденцию царя.

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