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Разумная симметрия

Барма и Посник получили заказ сгруппировать семь башен вокруг центральной восьмой, как это было в деревянном предшественнике Покровского собора, построенном тотчас после взятия Казани. Источники говорят нам, что мастера построили храм не о восьми престолах, «не якоже повелено было (царем), но яко по бозе разум даровася им в размерении основания», т.е. храм о девяти престолах. Этот факт свидетельствует о том, что прибавление лишней башни, против заказанного, было вызвано основанным на разумном начале принципом симметрического распределения башен, т.е. рациональным эстетическим законом, художественным принципом, основанным на разуме. Требование, исходившее из церковного источника — поставить семь приделов-башен вокруг центрального массива главного храма, — было отвергнуто ради разумной симметрии.

Этот факт, засвидетельствованный историческим источником, имеет очень большое значение. Он говорит о том, что в середине XVI века элементы рационализма в мировоззрении русских и проявление эстетического вкуса в их искусстве были настолько сильны, что в таком центральном памятнике всей тогдашней Руси, каким был Покровский собор, им могли быть принесены в жертву даже требования, предъявляемые церковью.

Подтверждением этого является свидетельство самих архитектурных форм Покровского собора, говорящих о том, что религиозная основа его архитектуры имеет в противоположность таковой же в русских храмах X-XV веков до некоторой степени нецерковный характер.

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