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Церковь Ахтамар

Ахтамар (Akdamar Kilesi) или Церковь Святого Креста, представляет собой разрушенный армянский собор в Восточной Анатолии. Расположенный на маленьком острове в красивой горной области около озера Ван. Церковь датируется 10-ым столетием и славится прекрасными барельефами, вырезанными на фасаде церкви.  Согласно местной легенде, остров Ахтамар получил свое название из-за трагической истории любви. Мужчина влюбился в женщину по имени Тамар, которая жила на острове. Он посещал ее каждую ночь до тех пор, пока одной трагической ночью, его не накрыли волны в шторме. Погружаясь в волны, он выкрикнул, «Ach, Tamar!».

История

Церковь Святого Креста была однажды важным армянским собором. Резиденция армянского православного патриарха, собор был основан королем Гагиком между 915 и 921 годами как часть дворцового королевского комплекса, который включал дворец, монастырь, сады и парки в виде террас. Церковь — все, что сохранилось до настоящего времени. Церковь была разработана армянским архитектором Трдатом Мендетом (также известный как Мануель), который также построил собор в соседнем селении и помог восстановить купол Святой Софии, когда он разрушился после землетрясения. Церковь Святого Креста была резиденцией армянского патриарха с 1116 года до 1895 года, когда собор был покинут, поскольку началось противостояние между Арменией и Османской империей. Здание пришло в упадок, и в течение 20-ого столетия о нем никто не заботился. Собор был восстановлен турецким правительством, начиная с мая 2005 года. Восстановление стоило 1.5 миллиона $ и заняло 18 месяцев. На церемонии 29 марта 2007 года, собор был официально открыт как музей. Проект восстановления считается дипломатическим шагом Турции в сторону улучшения отношений с Арменией, которые остаются очень напряженными.

Описание

Архитектурный план церкви основан на крестообразном плане, и увенчан конической крышей. Церковь Ахтамар имеет небольшие размеры — только 49 x 39 футов (15 x 12 м). Церковь построена из красного известкового туфа, привезенного на остров из отдаленных карьеров. В церкви практически исчезли фрески, но некоторые остатки этих фресок все еще могут быть замечены сегодня. Другой важной деталью архитектурного стиля церкви являются резные фигурки барельефа и бордюры с библейскими сценами, включая изображения Адама и Евы, Давида и Голиафа, Авраама и Исаака, убийство Св. Георгием дракона, Иисуса Пантократора, и Мадонны с младенцем. Также в церкви есть изображение царя Гагика, представляющего свою церковь Христу (тема, которая может также быть замечена в Святой Софии и большинстве других больших религиозных зданий этого периода). Богато вырезанная граница проходит вокруг всей   церкви, и на ней изображены животные и люди, которые  представляют месяцы года. Озера Ван — самое большее озеро в Турции и имеет очень высокий уровень содержания соли, что делает его местом, куда с древних времен приезжали отдыхать люди со всех концов империи. Также на озере есть множество маленьких островов с древними руинами.

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